Hypothesis that Explains the Shroud’s Unique Blood Marks and Several Critical Events in the Gospels

Arthur C. Lind Lind Research and Development, art@lindscientific.com

Mark Antonacci Resurrection of the Shroud Foundation, antonaccilaw@aol.com

 

This paper asserts that the Historically Consistent Hypothesis could also explain or provide insight into the Shroud’s unique blood marks, Jesus’ resurrection, the earthquake, and his sudden disappearances and reappearances reported in the Gospels.

Scientists and Semantics

by Mark Antonacci

 

We presently stand at a unique point in history and face a great scientific challenge.Extensive scientific tests and experiments have been conducted on the Shroud of Turin and its samples over the last four decades, along with a wealth of medical, archaeological and historical examinations throughout the 20thand 21stcenturies. These investigations have yielded a wide array of objective and independent evidence that the Shroud of Turin appears to have wrapped a dead human male who had intimate contact throughout both sides of this burial cloth.

 

Testing the Shroud and the Sudarium at the Molecular and Atomic Levels

by Mark Antonacci

 

I’ve had the pleasure of writing two books on the Shroud of Turin, The Resurrection of the Shroud in 2000 and Test the Shroud in 2015.1  I’m also the president of Test the Shroud Foundation, which for decades has supported new and innovative scientific research pertaining to the Shroud of Turin.

 

Can Contamination Be Detected on the Turin Shroud  to Explain Its 1988 Dating?
by Mark  Antonacci

This paper proposes future testing that could examine every fiber on the Shroud of Turin.  It also proposes specific tests for the presence of neutron-created C-14, Cl-36 and Ca-41 on control samples and on linen, blood, charred material and limestone from the Shroud of Turin and/or Jesus’ reputed burial tombs.  These tests could refute the Shroud’s 1988 radiocarbon dating and establish its actual age.  The proposed tests could also demonstrate that the Shroud linen and its blood was irradiated with a neutron flux and indicate when and where the event took place.

 

Image Formation by Protons

Arthur C. Lind Lind Research and Development art@lindrnd.com

The frontal and dorsal images of a man on the Shroud of Turin is unique.  These images are believed to have been formed on the burial cloth of Christ when He was miraculously resurrected.  No paint was used to create the images.  The images reside on the top most fibers of the threads of the linen cloth.  The image fibers are all the same color and intensity.  The darker regions of the image are caused by a greater density of image fibers.  The image fibers tend to lie adjacent to one another to produce striations.  Results of calculations are presented that predict the decrease in energy of protons as they pass through air and linen fibers.  These results suggest that proton radiation could have produced the Shroud images.  Experiments were designed and performed in which linen was irradiated with high energy protons.   The experimental results matched the calculated predictions.   The predictions did not address the striations observed on the Shroud image threads; however, the striations were observed on the threads.   The details of the mechanism for the image-forming process, such as the time duration of the process and the directions of the proton paths as they leave the surfaces of Christ’s body are not addressed.

 

Production of Radiocarbon by Neutron Radiation on Linen
A. C. Lind1, Mark Antonacci2, Giulio Fanti3, David Elmore4, James M. Guthrie5

 

Based on the hypothesis that the Turin Shroud received neutron radiation to produce contaminant radiocarbon that caused its 1988 radiocarbon dating to be in error by 1292 years, experiments were performed on modern linen.  Radiocarbon was produced by neutron reactions with nitrogen indigenous to the linen.  The amount of radiocarbon produced could be calculated from the neutron fluence and the nitrogen content of the linen. This radiocarbon was not removed by high temperatures or by the chemical cleaning treatments used in the 1988 tests.  Spatial variations in linen nitrogen content caused radiocarbon age gradients as large as 261 yr/cm for the neutron fluence needed to reduce its age by 1292 years.

 

Evidence for Image Formation by a Cloth-Collapse Model

by Mark Antonacci

    

One of the primary purposes of this presentation is to encourage radiation-based, image-encoding hypotheses for the Shroud of Turin to incorporate the benefits of cloth-collapse models into their hypotheses.  I would also like to encourage the inclusion of neutrons into all radiation and/or cloth collapse models.  Among the main points of this paper is to show that particle or neutron radiation within a cloth-collapse model can account for all the major features and conditions on the unique Shroud of Turin. 

 

Can Contamination Be Detected on the Turin Shroud  to Explain Its 1988 Dating?

by Mark Antonacci


This paper proposes future testing that could examine every fiber on the Shroud of Turin.  It also proposes specific tests for the presence of neutron-created C-14, Cl-36 and Ca-41 on control samples and on linen, blood, charred material and limestone from the Shroud of Turin and/or Jesus’ reputed burial tombs.  These tests could refute the Shroud’s 1988 radiocarbon dating and establish its actual age.  The proposed tests could also demonstrate that the Shroud linen and its blood was irradiated with a neutron flux and indicate when and where the event took place.

Particle radiation from the body could explain the Shroud’s images and its carbon dating
by  Mark Antonacci

 

This paper highlights some of the main reasons why radiation caused the body images on the Shroud of Turin; why the source of this radiation was the body wrapped within it; that the radiation appears to be particle radiation; and that if particle radiation came from the body of the man in the Shroud, it could account for or explain all of the primary and secondary body image features, the excellent condition of the cloth, its back side imaging, its possible coin and flower images, and the still red color of its centuries old blood marks. Particle radiation could also explain the Shroud’s 1988 radiocarbon dating.

Nuclear Science and The Shroud of Turin
by Mark Antonacci

This paper proposes specific tests for the presence of neutron-created C-14, Cl-36 and Ca-41 on control samples and on linen, blood, charred material and limestone from the Shroud of Turin and/or Jesus’ reputed burial tombs.  These tests could refute the Shroud’s 1988 radiocarbon dating and establish its actual age.  The proposed tests could also demonstrate that the Shroud linen and its blood were irradiated with a neutron flux, while indicating when and where the event took place.

An Unrealistic Approach and Analysis of the  Blood Flows on the Shroud of Turin

by Mark Antonacci
 

A recent paper by Matteo Borrini and Luigi Garlaschelli titled “A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin” was recently published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences1.  This paper contains the bloodstain patterns from two sets of experiments in which:
1.)  blood from an overhead bag was released through a small thin tube located at the back of the wrist of one of the authors, and which
2.)  blood flows were made on a plastic mannequin by pressure being applied on a small sponge soaked in blood.

WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
by Mark Antonacci

 

More scientific research needs to be conducted by irradiating various types of low-energy radiation on linen, along with computer modeling of various radiation-based and other imageforming hypotheses.  Various improvements and advances have been seen in DNA and blood testing techniques that could be undertaken again with blood from the Shroud.  Portable X-ray fluorescence testing that could identify chemicals on the Shroud should also be undertaken before any future sampling from this cloth.  However, these are just some of the minimally invasive or non-destructive testing techniques that could be undertaken on the Shroud or its samples.

Naturalistic Processes for Image Formation

by Mark Antonacci

 

The following are just some of the bodily reactions and indicators that a dead human male was wrapped in the Shroud of Turin at the time his body images and blood marks were encoded on this burial cloth.

Was the Shroud of Turin Invisibly Rewoven with Foreign Material at the Radiocarbon Site to Match the Rest of the Cloth?

by Mark Antonacci

 

The intriguing Invisible Repair or Reweave Hypothesis was first announced by Joseph Marino and M. Sue Benford at the International Shroud Conference held in Orvieto, Italy in 2000.1  This hypothesis states that unlike numerous repairs that are easily visible on the Shroud, a 16th century repair or reweave was made at the radiocarbon site that is “invisible” or undiscerning to the naked eye.  While this hypothesis caused an interesting stir, it was given a significant boost by Raymond Rogers who published his research and conclusions from 2001-2005 following his examination of 14 thread segments from the Raes sample and radiocarbon material.  Fig. 1 below shows the locations where these and other radiocarbon samples were all taken from this same general vicinity.